Louis working papers are preliminary materials circulated to stimulate discussion and critical comment.
The International Monetary Fundis another one. Many countries sent people to attend the Bretton Woods Conference.
The most powerful countries with people there were the United States and United Kingdomwhich controlled most of the negotiations. Careful screening of loan applications was common. The bank wanted to provide loans for reconstruction and development, but if they lent out too much, there would be less trust in the bank.
There were very strict rules about the use of the funds. Bank staff made sure that the French government would have a balanced budget and pay back what it owed to the World Bank first before it paid back other countries.
To get the loan, the French government removed the Communist coalition government. The loan to France was given very quickly after that. Untilloans were used mainly to pay for projects that would help the country pay it back such projects as portshighway systems, and power plants.
The amount of money being loaned out grew bigger, and more loans were given. This was because the loans were not just given for infrastructure, but also for social services and other things.
These changes were made by Robert McNamara who became the president in McNamara started a new system of gathering information from nations applying for loans.
This helped the bank to process loan applications much faster. To give out more loans, McNamara told bank treasurer Eugene Rotberg to find new sources of money, because the northern banks that had lent out the money did not have enough. Rotberg used the bond market to increase the amount of money that the bank could lend.
Environmental groups and NGOs were also lent money, to help fix the things that the people were complaining about. The World Bank headquarters in Washington, D. This means lending mainly to countries that are not very poor, at interest rates which are a little bit higher than the ones it borrows at.
The IDA provides low or no interest loans and grants to the poorest countries. They will also meet the MDGs by helping countries to become good places for investment, jobs and sustainable growth. This it is postulated will help the country's economic growth through investment and help the poor to share the results of economic growth.
The World Bank says that there are five key factors necessary for economic growth: Making governments stronger and more educated. Making laws to encourage business, and protect individual and property rights.
Development of Financial Systems: Starting strong systems that can lend and borrow in many different situations. Stopping corruption in governments. Research, Consultancy and Training: The World Bank looks very carefully at local groups of people, and the needs of the country, to develop a strategy that works best for that country.
The government then says what it will do to help stop poverty, and the World Bank works with it. While richer nations sometimes pay for their own aid projects, Robert B.
Zoellick, the president of the World Bank, said when the gifts were announced on December 15,that World Bank money "is the core funding that the poorest developing countries rely on".
He is responsible for chairing the meetings of the Boards of Directors and for running the Bank. The person is then approved by the Board of Governors. They are president for five years, and after that they might be chosen again.
They make up the Board of Directors and usually meet twice a week to approve and discuss loans and guarantees, new policiesthe budget, ways to help countries and other important decisions. Voting power[ change change source ] Invoting powers at the World Bank were changed so that developing countries, especially China, have a bigger vote.
The countries with most voting power are now the United States Under the changes, other countries that saw big gains included BrazilIndiaSouth Korea and Mexico. Most developed countries' voting power was reduced.World bank policy research working paper no.
World bank policy research working paper no. By.
Posted 26 september In Geen categorie. 0. 0. The art of love ovid analysis essay buy custom essays online xbox one love marriages essay (criteria for . The Policy Research Working Paper Series disseminates the findings of work in progress to encourage the exchange of ideas about development issues.
An objective of the series is to get the findings out quickly, even if the presentations are less than fully polished. Working Papers. Federal Reserve Bank of St.
Louis working papers are preliminary materials circulated to stimulate discussion and critical comment. The World Bank Group and the Government of Japan established the Quality Infrastructure Investment Partnership to focus attention on the quality dimensions of infrastructure in developing countries, with a focus on promoting disaster Document Type: Policy Research Working Paper Report No.: WPS Document Date: SEP 13, Author.
Preliminary versions of economic research. Did Consumers Want Less Debt? Consumer Credit Demand Versus Supply in the Wake of the Financial Crisis. Outstanding research and analysis underpins everything we do, from policymaking to providing secure banknotes.
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