Web-based writing and peer review Introduction Calibrated Peer Review CPR is a web-based, instructional tool that enables frequent writing assignments in any discipline, with any class size, even in large classes with limited instructional resources. In fact, CPR can reduce the time an instructor now spends reading and assessing student writing.
The goal of these tools is to increase screening awareness and identify modifiable health behaviors; however, the utility of this risk information is limited by the readability of the material. We undertook this study to assess the overall readability of breast cancer risk assessment tools and accompanying information, as well as to identify areas of suggested improvement.
We searched for breast cancer risk assessment tools, using five search terms, on three search engines. All searches were performed on June 12, Sites that met inclusion criteria were then assessed for readability using the suitability assessment of materials SAM and the SMOG readability formula July 1, —January 31, The primary outcomes are the frequency distribution of overall SAM readability category superior, adequate, or not suitable and mean SMOG reading grade level.
The search returned 42 sites were eligible for assessment, only 9 The average SMOG reading grade level was grade The readability of breast cancer risk assessment tools and the sites that host them is an important barrier to risk communication.
This study demonstrates that most breast cancer risk assessment tools are not accessible to individuals with limited health literacy skills. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi: Risk assessment, Readability, Breast cancer, Communication Introduction Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide.
In the United States, it is the leading cause of death for women aged 20—59 years [ 1 ]. Numerous risk factors for the development of newly diagnosed breast cancer have been identified [ 2 ].
Factors such as age at menarche and family history are non-modifiable risk factors that significantly contribute to lifetime risk [ 3 ].
Modifiable risk factors, such as alcohol consumption and obesity, involve lifestyle choices that an individual could alter to reduce her personal risk of breast cancer [ 4 ].
Breast cancer risk assessment tools are used to give patients a sense of their level of risk to better individualize screening recommendations, as well as to inform women about modifiable risk behaviors [ 5 ].
Today, the Internet is an important source of risk information. When looking for health information, adults with limited literacy skills are more likely to use search terms that are broad, choose sites with an 11th grade or higher reading level, and click on advertisements [ 9 ].
Numerous studies have evaluated the importance of health literacy in cancer risk communication. Individuals with limited literacy skills are less likely to understand the purpose of cancer screening and less able to apply relative risk reduction information to their own personal cancer risk [ 10 — 12 ].
This has a significant impact on the health of individuals with limited health literacy, as they report higher distress about developing cancer and lower rates of breast cancer screening [ 713 ].
One opportunity to improve health outcomes for individuals with limited health literacy is to improve the design of health information [ 7 ]. The format of risk communication in online cancer risk assessment tools has been previously profiled [ 14 ]; however, the readability of breast cancer risk assessment tools has not been assessed.All entering international students take a web-based English proficiency assessment during the summer prior to their matriculation.
Results: Students who score well on the assessment are considered highly proficient and are placed in the traditional freshman writing course (76 . Unlike traditional reporting tools, Klipfolio is a cloud-based data analytics platform that enables users to connect to any data source, create beautiful data visualizations and easily share them when and where needed.
Self-Assessment Tools. You would like to assess how your organization is performing? We also suggest that you try the Universalia-IDRC Development Agency Performance web-based self diagnostic tool.
This tool will help you rate your own organization's capabilities on a set of selected factors that influence performance, this in entire.
Web-based web site accessibility evaluation tools are a handy resource for anyone who wants to ensure that the site they are developing meets established accessibility standards.
Since web site accessibility is a subset of web site usability, one needs to ensure that the site is accessible as part. These tools and apps for formative assessment success give teachers (and students) many options and opportunities for classroom success.
To get the most out of formative instructional strategies, check out our NWEA® formative practices workshops. Assessment Tools Performance assessment is getting increased attention from educational experts across the nation. Teachers should be up to date on the latest assessment tools and learn to use them effectively to assess student understanding of a given topic.