Author of Sleeping with Your Baby: And there is good reason why. I write here to explain why the pediatric recommendations on forms of cosleeping such as bedsharing will and should remain mixed. I will also address why the majority of new parents practice intermittent bedsharing despite governmental and medical warnings against it.
Formerly Bechuanaland Protectorate under the British, Botswana became independent in Bot swana means "place of Tswana" in the dominant national language Set swanaand the citizenry are called Bat swana, or Tswana people.
The term Batswana, however, bears a double meaning. In government rhetoric, it refers to all citizens of Botswana. But the word also refers to ethnically "Tswana" people, as distinct from the other ethnic groups present in the country.
This double meaning allows for both the expression of strong civic national sentiments and debate about the dominance of Tswana people and ideology over Term paper on the dobe ju/hoansi broader population.
The double meaning has also permitted the fiction, widely accepted in outside reporting, that Botswana's success as a multiparty liberal democracy is based on an ethnically homogeneous population, when abundant state resources based upon diamond mining, responsibly and equitably distributed, are the more likely source of stability.
This fiction may indeed have supported the building of an officially nonethnic, state-oriented society, but has come under sharp challenge in the s, as minority groups request the privileges of official recognition.
Botswana is a landlocked and arid country. Bordering on South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia, and Zambia, it issquare milessquare kilometers in area, about the same size as France.
Two-thirds of the country is comprised of the Kalahari Desert, which is covered with grasses and scrub but has scarce surface water. Mean annual rainfall ranges from under 10 inches millimeters per annum in the southwest to over 25 inches millimeters in the northeast.
The entire country is prone to extended droughts, causing significant hardship to agriculturalists, pastoralists, and hunter-gatherers. The Okavango Delta, in the north, is a large inland delta, and people there fish and farm on its flooded banks; tourists are drawn to the large numbers of wildlife that congregate in the area.
The eastern third of the country, with more rainfall and fertile soils, is home to most of the population. The capital city today, Gaborone, was built on a village site in the southeastern corner of the country at independence, near the borders of several of the Tswana polities that dominated the country.
Botswana's population has grown frompeople in to an estimated 1, in While very high growth rates in the s and s have declined, high birth rates and declining infant mortality have led to a population structure heavily skewed toward young people: Although ethnically Tswana people are often said to be a majority, government censuses collect no information on ethnicity.
Earlier studies indicated that in some regions, Tswana were a minority, and that all polities were composed of people of heterogeneous origins, including Kalanga, Yei, Mbukushu, Subiya, Herero, Talaote, Tswapong, Kgalagadi, Kaa, Birwa, and varied peoples known as Bushmen or, in Botswana, Sarwa.
There are also resident Europeans and Indians. Bantu, Khoisan, and Indo-European languages are spoken in Botswana. English is the official language and Setswana the national language. This means that the language of government and higher education is primarily English, but that Setswana is the dominant language spoken in the country.
Ninety percent of the population is said to speak Setswana. Most speakers of other languages are multilingual; some, however, have weaker competence in Setswana and have complained of disadvantages in primary schooling.
It is also the term for the national currency. The national anthem is "Lefatshe la Rona," "Our Country"and its title captures the strong attachment most Batswana feel to the land and its resources, as well as some antiforeign sentiments.
Cattle were tremendously important not just to a material economy but also to the symbolic economy of status, family, and social relations in the past, and cattle remain powerfully evocative to most Batswana today. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. People known colloquially to the west as Bushmen have lived in Botswana for thousands of years.
Herders and agriculturalists from a Bantu tradition appeared more than two-thousand years ago. Tswana polities under Tswana chiefs moved into Botswana from the south and east in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, some responding to the rise of the Zulu state and European encroachments.
Missionization of Tswana began inand throughout the nineteenth century Tswana polities were drawn into trade, Christianity, and the migrant labor economy centered in South Africa, while defending themselves against incursions from the north, east, and south.
In the British declared the area the Bechuanaland Protectorate, and in a famous visit to Britain inthree of the Tswana kings petitioned to remain under the British instead of being governed by the British South Africa Company.
British administration in the twentieth century strengthened the role of the Tswana chiefs and the dominance of Tswana laws and customs over the country. National political activity at first focused upon preventing the protectorate's annexation by South Africa.
Later, as independence movements emerged across Africa, people from a variety of ethnic groups looked forward to independence and formed political parties. The move to independence was quite peaceful. Independence was granted to the newly named Republic of Botswana in As a new nation, Botswana emphasized nonethnic citizenship and liberal democracy.
Diamonds were discovered soon after independence was granted, and the prudent and equitable use of their revenues has underwritten stability and the repeated reelection of the dominant political party.
The domination of the country by the Tswana polities has persisted in a nonethnic government through the easy assumption of the predominance of Tswana people, language, and customs. Certain groups in the past were treated as serfs or subordinates by Tswana, such as the Sarwa, Kgalagadi, Yei, and Kalanga, and the latter two have been particularly active in the s to secure official recognition for minority "tribes," and in ethnic revivalism.
The nonethnic official rhetoric of civic participation, however, has also allowed many members of minority groups to move through the educational system into prominent management and bureaucratic positions.The Fundamental Claim of Cultural Relativism - A moral code is the system of rules which direct you to act ethically and morally.
A society is a collection of people who interact knowingly and unknowingly to create a sustainable economy. RICHARD B. LEE University of Toronto FIRST EDITION PUBLISHED AS THE DOBE!KUNG The Dobe Ju/’hoansi FOURTH EDITION Australia † Brazil † Japan † Korea † Mexico † Singapore † Spain † United Kingdom † United States.
I am curious to know whether in the co-sleeping debate how much attention has been paid to 1) the kinds of beds and sleeping environments that exist cross-culturally and 2) . By James J. McKenna Ph.D. Edmund P. Joyce C.S.C. Chair in Anthropology Director, Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Laboratory University of Notre Dame Author of Sleeping with Your Baby: A Parent’s Guide to Cosleeping.
Where a baby sleeps is not as simple as current medical discourse and recommendations against cosleeping in some western societies want it to be.
Cultural Relativism Is A Weak Argument - In this paper I will argue that cultural relativism is a weak argument. Cultural relativism is the theory that all ethical and moral claims are relative to culture and custom (Rachels, 56). Identification. Formerly Bechuanaland Protectorate under the British, Botswana became independent in Bot swana means "place of Tswana" in the dominant national language (Set swana), and the citizenry are called Bat swana, or Tswana people.
The term Batswana, however, bears a .