Sample Research Papers Nuclear energy is a comparatively new source of energy. The first nuclear power plant was commissioned in June in Obninsk, Russia. Fossil fuels offer a limited source of energy, as they are non-renewable. Eventually these supplies will cease, this is predicted to be in the next few decades.
China in line for role in British nuclear deal 7 Oct The world's first AP third-generation nuclear power plant being built in Sanmen, Zhejiang province, has fallen behind schedule, and questions are being raised over its safety standards.
Industry veteran Li Yulun said the plant's developer, China National Nuclear Corp CNNCand its United States technology partner Westinghouse should be more transparent about how mainland reactors would be built according to the most advanced safety standards.
The State Council in October last year decided to resume "normal" construction of nuclear power plants, ending a month suspension of new project approvals amid a thorough safety review of all operating projects and those under construction or being planned following the earthquake-nuclear disaster in Japan in March Beijing also scaled back expansion of new plants before the end of and allowed only a small number of "well-proven" projects in coastal regions.
InWestinghouse, a unit of Japanese engineering and electronics giant Toshiba, won a contract to supply two reactors to Sanmen, and another two to Haiyang, Shandong province, based on its AP technology. Westinghouse's AP and French rival Areva's European pressurised reactors belong to the so-called third-generation technology and are supposed to be safer, more efficient and have longer operating lives than widely commercialised second-generation technologies that Chinese firms generally use.
According to Westinghouse, its "passive core cooling system" provides "unequalled safety" through "passive residual heat removal". In the event of an accident, the plant's design allows it to shut down without any operator intervention and without the need for power or pumps to run cooling systems since it relies on natural forces such as gravity to prevent overheating.
Westinghouse said the pumps' supplier Curtiss Wright EMD had not specified any inspection and maintenance requirements since "its experience with similar canned motor pumps has demonstrated that inspection and maintenance are not required for the long-term safe operation of the pumps".
Li said Beijing was more prudent when it imported second-generation technology. He said former premier Li Peng followed what he called the "normal practice" in introducing foreign technology over two decades ago to build the nuclear plant in Daya Bay, 50 kilometres northeast of Hong Kong, by insisting on having a precedent reference plant.
This was a less risky approach since the reference plant's actual performance parameters were typically used as the basis for resolving contractual disputes on technical issues, he said.
By rushing to realise the world's first AP commercialisation project, the mainland was taking on higher risks, Li Yulun said. In a research paper published last month, Li Yulun said the first four AP reactors bought by CNNC were based on the 15th revision of the original design, and that Westinghouse had told CNNC before signing the supply contract that it was working on the 16th revision with major design changes.
But CNNC insisted on sealing the contract based on the 15th revision, citing a need to start construction early, he added. CNNC would not comment. A spokesman for State Nuclear Power Technology Corp, which is responsible for importing new technology, said the basic design of AP reactors had not changed despite the revisions.
He added that the reactors being built in China had incorporated technical changes from subsequent revisions, except for requirements aimed at protecting a nuclear plant against the deliberate crashing of large commercial aircraft, which is mandatory in the US but not in China.
In what he considered to be another sign that China has been rushing into a new technology, Li Yulun noted that Britain's Office for Nuclear Regulation had rejected Westinghouse's bid to supply reactors in Juneciting some "unresolved technical issues". He quoted Westinghouse's head of its British unit Mike Tynan as having said that a significant amount of work needed to be done on the safety front.
Westinghouse's spokeswoman said Britain's Office for Nuclear Regulation in late granted "interim" approvals to AP's design.
She said additional work would be required for the design to move to "final" approval status, and Westinghouse "will embark on the remainder of this work once we have been selected as the preferred reactor design by a British utility customer".- Nuclear Energy: Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant On March 11th, , the country of Japan was greatly affected by the well-known Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant nuclear disaster.
Due to the limited amounts of natural resources such as coal in the country of Japan, there was not a sufficient amount to cheaply and easily provide for the .
Nuclear power, however is not as safe as burning coal, gas or oil in a factory it is in fact, much more dangerous, There are dangers associated with a nuclear power plant which far out weigh the benefits to society as a whole and in part to the community living and working around the power plant.
Term Paper On Nuclear Reactor AMITY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY May-June, Guided by: Submitted by: Dr. Ashok Kumar Name: Akshay Mistri Physics Department Enrolment No.: A 2.
ASET, Noida Section: 3MAE3-Y Acknowledgement I acknowledge, with gratitude, my debt of thanks to . Note that in the above table accumulated data has been used. For example, in the commercial sector for the low scenario the investment is the total capital cost over 12 years and the energy saved is the total energy saved over 12 years.
The energy saved is in petajoules (PJ): 1 petajoule = 10^15 joules. History. Professor (and later Nobel laureate) Abdus Salam, as Science Advisor to the President, persuaded President Ayub Khan, to establish Pakistan's first commercial nuclear power reactor, near Karachi.
Known as Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), the commercial power plant is a small MWe CANDU reactor, a Canadian pressurized heavy water reactor. A nuclear reactor or nuclear power plant consists of nuclear reactor fuel, control rods, moderators, pressure vessels, coolant and containment.