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References and Further Reading 1. Logical Investigations seemed to pursue its agenda against a backdrop of metaphysical realism. In Ideas I Husserlhowever, Husserl presented phenomenology as a form of transcendental idealism.
This apparent move was greeted with hostility from some early admirers of Logical Investigations, such as Adolph Reinach.
However, Husserl later claimed that he had always intended to be a transcendental idealist. In Ideas I Husserl offered a more nuanced account of the intentionality of consciousness, of the distinction between fact and essence and of the phenomenological as opposed to the natural attitude.
Heidegger was an assistant to Husserl who took phenomenology in a rather new direction. Relations between Husserl and Heidegger became strained, partly due to the divisive issue of National Socialism, but also due to significant philosophical differences.
Although he published relatively little in his lifetime, Husserl was a prolific writer leaving a large number of manuscripts. Although none of the philosophers mentioned above can be thought of straightforwardly as classical Husserlian phenomenologists, in each case Husserl sets the phenomenological agenda.
Phenomenological Method Husserlian phenomenology is a discipline to be undertaken according to a strict method.
This method incorporates both the phenomenological and eidetic reductions. Phenomena Phenomenology is, as the word suggests, the science of phenomena.
But this just raises the questions: In answering the first question, it is useful to briefly turn to Kant. On one reading of Kant, appearances are in the mind, mental states of subjects.
On another reading, appearances are things as they appear, worldly objects considered in a certain way. Both of these understandings of the nature of phenomena can be found in the phenomenological literature.
However, the most common view is that all of the major phenomenologists construe phenomena in the latter way: They are not mental states but worldly things considered in a certain way. The Phenomenologists tend, however, to reject Kantian noumena.
Also, importantly, it is not to be assumed that the relevant notion of appearing is limited to sensory experience. Thus, for example, although not objects of sensory experience, phenomenology can offer an account of how the number series is given to intuition.
Phenomenology, then, is the study of things as they appear phenomena. It is also often said to be descriptive rather than explanatory: This can be distinguished from the project of giving, for example, causal or evolutionary explanationswhich would be the job of the natural sciences.
Phenomenological Reduction In ordinary waking experience we take it for granted that the world around us exists independently of both us and our consciousness of it. This might be put by saying that we share an implicit belief in the independent existence of the world, and that this belief permeates and informs our everyday experience.
perception of events outside the known channels of sensation Telepathy gaining awareness of the thoughts, feelings, or activities of another person without the use of the senses. discernment, discrimination, perception, penetration, insight, acumen mean a power to see what is not evident to the average mind. discernment stresses accuracy (as in reading character or motives or appreciating art).. the discernment to know true friends; discrimination stresses the power to distinguish and select what is true or appropriate . Start studying Sensation, Perception, and Consciousness. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Husserl refers to this positing of the world and entities within it as things which transcend our experience of them as "the natural attitude" Husserlsec. In The Idea of Phenomenology, Husserl introduces what he there refers to as "the epistemological reduction," according to which we are asked to supply this positing of a transcendent world with "an index of indifference" Husserl This means that all judgements that posit the independent existence of the world or worldly entities, and all judgements that presuppose such judgements, are to be bracketed and no use is to be made of them in the course of engaging in phenomenological analysis.
Importantly, Husserl claims that all of the empirical sciences posit the independent existence of the world, and so the claims of the sciences must be "put out of play" with no use being made of them by the phenomenologist.
The reduction, then, is that which reveals to us the primary subject matter of phenomenology—the world as given and the givenness of the world; both objects and acts of consciousness.
There are a number of motivations for the view that phenomenology must operate within the confines of the phenomenological reduction.
One is epistemological modesty. The subject matter of phenomenology is not held hostage to skepticism about the reality of the "external" world.
Another is that the reduction allows the phenomenologist to offer a phenomenological analysis of the natural attitude itself. This is especially important if, as Husserl claims, the natural attitude is one of the presuppositions of scientific enquiry. Finally, there is the question of the purity of phenomenological description.A very interesting talk, both for the very difficult issues around sensation and perception raised by phenomena like blindsight, and for the larger issues around the nature of consciousness.
discernment, discrimination, perception, penetration, insight, acumen mean a power to see what is not evident to the average mind. discernment stresses accuracy (as in reading character or motives or appreciating art).. the discernment to know true friends; discrimination stresses the power to distinguish and select what is true or appropriate .
"Consciousness matters. Arguably it matters more than anything. The purpose of this book is to build towards an explanation of just what the matter is.". Nicholas Humphrey begins this compelling exploration of the biggest of big questions with a challenge to the reader, and himself.
Perception, attention, and consciousness Since the earliest days of psycho-physiology, there has been a debate about the link among sensation, perception, attention, and consciousness.
The main question is: What happens to a sensory signal in the brain when it reaches a conscious stage of processing as opposed to being processed preattentively.
perception of events outside the known channels of sensation Telepathy gaining awareness of the thoughts, feelings, or activities of another person without the use of the senses. Start studying Sensation, Perception, and Consciousness. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.