This came as a complete surprise to me when I was a young upstart, striving for social justice in a squat in Hackney. While looking for a radical approach to my art, I found a revolutionary artist working in the most traditional of art forms. I first came across the work of Vermeer in the library at the London College of Printing, where I was doing my photography degree back in This is a 3D photographic model of a squatted street in Hackney, that had been home to me and around others, for as long as 10 years.
References and Further Reading 1. Individuals are singular objects. They can exist over time, but in only one place at a time. Individuals also have properties also called qualitiesat least most of which can vary over time.
A ripening apple goes from being green to being red, for instance. Almost everyone agrees Realism approach essay individual apples exist, and that they are colored, but are redness and greenness entities themselves?
If so, what are they like? And if redness and greenness are not real entities, how could our apple be colored at all? If so, what is their nature? How are they related to individuals? We can approach the question about the existence of universals from a linguistic perspective.
Consider how often we speak of things having properties: The subject term refers to the individual described in the sentence. The predicate, on the other hand, describes; it tells us something about the way that individual is, how it is qualified.
Do predicates also refer? Some philosophers think they do. Alongside the individuals picked out by subject terms of sentences, it is thought, there are entities of a different kind, picked out by predicates. Prima facie, there seems to be every reason to believe in universals.
They look to be just as much a part of our experience as individuals are. Philosophical questions and problems arise, however, when we try to specify their natures.
If universals are real, but are not individuals, what are they? Some philosophers contend that universals are too strange to accept into our world view. In a similar vein, it has been alleged that any philosophical work done by universals can be done just as well without them; whether they are strange or not, many argue, universals are simply unnecessary.
But first we will examine competing Realist conceptions of the nature of universals.
The Nature of Universals In fundamental debates in metaphysics, it can be useful to understand the type of entity or concept in contrastive terms. For instance, it is helpful to understand universals by contrasting them with individuals.
What then, is an individual, or a particular, in the philosophical or metaphysical sense of the term? Examples include the familiar objects of sense-experience, such as chairs or tigers. A room may contain many chairs that are virtually alike in their intrinsic qualities, but each chair is nonetheless a distinct thing in one place at one time.
The individuals familiar from experience are also said to be material: Some philosophers are committed to other types of individuals, as well: The crucial contrast for our purposes, however, is between what are repeatable universals and what are not individuals. Although individuals are nonrepeatable, universals can serve their characteristic functions only if they differ from individuals in this respect.
In order to ground relations of qualitative identity, for instance, universals must be multi-exemplifiable or repeatableable to be here and there at the same time. My apple and yours are both individuals, and this implies that each can be in only one place at a time.
But if the redness they share is a universal, then the redness they share is a real non-individual, literally in both. The apples are similar in virtue of sharing this universal, redness. And if redness is shared in this way, then it is in at least two places at once.Back in , the Knight-Ridder newspaper chain began investigating piracy of Dave Barry’s popular column, which was published by the Miami Herald and syndicated widely.
[In the following essay, Kagan-Kans provides an overview of the development of Russian realism during the period from to , focusing on the short fiction of Ivan Turgenev, Leo Tolstoy, and.
Introduction "Modern art" is a broad term which refers to art produced during the years Some historians prefer to limit "modern art" to the 20th century, but, it is more customary to take Impressionism as the starting point, while the s are usually seen as the transition between "modern art" and its successor "postmodernist art".
Theories of Explanation. Within the philosophy of science there have been competing ideas about what an explanation is. Historically, explanation has been associated with causation: to explain an event or phenomenon is to identify its cause. Realism in literature is an approach that attempts to describe life without idealisation or romantic subjectivity.
Although realism is not limited to any one century or group of writers, it is most often associated with the literary movement, started in 19th-century France. Magical realism, magic realism, or marvelous realism is a genre of narrative fiction and, more broadly, art (literature, painting, film, theatre, etc.) that, while encompassing a range of subtly different concepts, expresses a primarily realistic view of the real world while also adding or revealing magical elements.
It is sometimes called fabulism, in reference to the conventions of fables.