As John Paul II has said, across the centuries "we have constantly seen the phenomenon of groups of varying sizes being spontaneously urged on to join together, driven by a mysterious prompting of the Holy Spirit, to pursue specific charitable or spiritual purposes to meet particular needs of the Church in their time and also to cooperate in her essential and permanent mission". The development of monasticism in the first millennium, and the emergence of the mendicant Orders in the 13th century stand as evidence of the work of the laity. In the 16th century, before and after the Council of Trent, in the wake of Church reform, a vast network of lay associations was created, in which a leading part was played by the Confraternities, Oratories and the Marian Congregations.
The report was prepared under the auspices of the National Advisory Environmental Health Committee to provide direction to Federal programmes in occupational health. Technological change and the increasing psychological demands of the workplace were listed as contributing factors.
Thirty years later, this report has proven remarkably prophetic. Job stress has become a leading source of worker disability in North America and Europe. These developments are understandable considering the demands of modern work. Similarly, a more recent study of the Dutch working population found that one-half of the sample reported a high work pace, three-fourths of the sample reported poor possibilities of promotion, and one-third reported a poor fit between their education and their jobs Houtman and Kompier On the American side, data on the prevalence of job stress risk factors in the workplace are less available.
The impact of this problem in terms of lost productivity, disease and reduced quality of life is undoubtedly formidable, although difficult to estimate reliably. However, recent analyses of data from over 28, workers by the Saint Paul Fire and Marine Insurance company are of interest and relevance.
This study found that time pressure and other emotional and personal problems at work were more strongly associated with reported health problems than any other personal life stressor; more so than even financial or family problems, or death of a loved one St.
Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company Looking to the future, rapid changes in the fabric of work and the workforce pose unknown, and possibly increased, risks of job stress.
For example, in many countries the workforce is rapidly ageing at a time when job security is decreasing. In the United States, corporate downsizing continues almost unabated into the last half of the decade at a rate of over 30, jobs lost per month Roy In the above-cited study by Galinsky, Bond and Friedman nearly one-fifth of the workers thought it likely they would lose their jobs in the forthcoming year.
The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of current knowledge on conditions which lead to stress at work and associated health and safety problems. These conditions, which are commonly referred to as psychosocial factors, include aspects of the job and work environment such as organizational climate or culture, work roles, interpersonal relationships at work, and the design and content of tasks e.
The concept of psychosocial factors extends also to the extra-organizational environment e. Frequently, the expressions work organization or organizational factors are used interchangeably with psychosocial factors in reference to working conditions which may lead to stress.
This section of the Encyclopaedia begins with descriptions of several models of job stress which are of current scientific interest, including the job demands-job control model, the person- environment P-E fit model, and other theoretical approaches to stress at work.
Like all contemporary notions of job stress, these models have a common theme: According to this view, job stress and the potential for ill health develop when job demands are at variance with the needs, expectations or capacities of the worker.
This core feature is implicit in figure In this model, work-related psychosocial factors termed stressors result in psychological, behavioural and physical reactions which may ultimately influence health. However, as illustrated in figure But putting aside this conceptual similarity, there are also non-trivial theoretical differences among these models.
For example, unlike the NIOSH and P-E fit models of job stress, which acknowledge a host of potential psychosocial risk factors in the workplace, the job demands-job control model focuses most intensely on a more limited range of psychosocial dimensions pertaining to psychological workload and opportunity for workers to exercise control termed decision latitude over aspects of their jobs.Caring and Self Care July Susan Coutts (Health counsellor/Physiotherapist) Caring for others is an act of kindness and compassion that is both rewarding and challenging.
million Australians are registered carers of family or friends who have a physical or mental illness or are frail aged. The goal of this course is to provide students with core concepts used in direct social work practice with client systems.
An ecological/systems perspective of person-in-environment is used to anchor generic concepts for a range of practice situations. The incorporation of these resources into the design of work environments should, ideally, be combined with organizational and facilities management policies that maximize the health- .
A Person-Centered Approach to Multicultural Counseling Competence Adam Quinn1 Abstract ) toward developing a cross-cultural coun-seling competencies framework had a substantial impact on theory, research, and policy at the turn of the century. As a result, a wealth of contributions.
Apr 11, · Concerns have been raised about the suitability of person-centred therapy in cross-cultural counselling. The person-centred approach is based of the values and the language of white Western middle-class males hence can be seen to overtly or covertly maintain world-views which marginalise or oppress subordinate groups (O’Hara, ).
This power point presentation was created in conjunction with the article Person Centered Therapy which can be found on leslutinsduphoenix.com Using Person- Centered Techniques• Cautions against making assumptions about clients based on their cultural background.• Limitations to Multicultural Counseling• Desire for more structure.