Since then it has had many different forms, and been adapted to write many other languages. According to Roman legend, the Cimmerian Sibyl, Carmenta, created the Latin alphabet by adapting the Greek alphabet used in the Greek colony of Cumae in southern Italy. This was introduced to Latium by Evander, her son.
Leave a reply Carolingian Miniscule owes its fame to Charlemagne, though not its actual creation, it was around long before Charlemagne made it the norm carolingian writing a letter his empire. Crowned Holy Roman Emperor in A.
With education reforms that Charlemagne put in place, the stage was set for a simple, easy to read script meant for the lay person to take over from the many evolved cursive forms used in very formal and courtly documents. This document will overview the history of the Caroline script as an object of an evolving culture which received special attention in the 9th c.
The specifics of exemplar letters of this script will also be explored and explained for the purpose of being able to identify this script from amidst other medieval manuscripts. For how to actually reproduce the letters, see the contribution by Scott Chapin elsewhere on the site.
As well as ending with a brief overview on why people actually care about the letter forms changing and what it means For clarity purposes for anyone who has not spent much time studying paleography, it will be helpful to have a few specific terms clearly defined for the context of manuscripts: General term for alphabets that are very stylistically similar, but variance in detail construction .
Any others will be explained in context, these are simply used very often and it is useful to know them from the outset. The letterforms that came to be known as Caroline carolingian writing a letter originally evolved from earlier uses and influences of Roman cursive and half uncial, two scripts with forms that were quick to write, relatively easy to identify, and quite rounded in shape, though some influence of Byzantine letters are also found, particularly in Ravenna around 7th-8th centuries .
These attributes would continue to define Caroline miniscule and keep it distinct from the plethora of other scripts which came and went in the following centuries.
Merovingian scripts with slender, narrow letters very much continuing the late Roman cursive forms, are also particularly present in influencing the Carolingian script, especially in France and Northern Italy. Many miniscule scripts emerge, beginning around A. Alemannic miniscule mediated French and Italian tendencies, while establishing its own distinctive forms to differentiate it from the coming Caroline miniscule.
Roman capitalis, older, and later cursive scripts. However, even though miniscule scripts existed, there were many regional variants, many ligatures used, which made it complicated to institute a unified script immediately as many places practiced the unified script Charlemagne wanted implemented, however still used their regional script for much of the work .
Carolingian miniscule finally became the predominant script in most scriptoria around A. While he was alive, Charlemagne went to great lengths to bring back the glory of the Roman empire, now reborn as the Holy Roman Empire.
Charlemagne tried to combat this by instituting universal education reforms which included a standardization of script to be used throughout the empire, and a mission to copy as many manuscripts as possible to bring reading and a learned populace back to Europe, as much as he wanted to raise the moral standing of the empire.
With this drive to educate the people, Charlemagne not only pushed to standardize the liturgical tradition and canon law, but he also had copies made of as many secular, ancient texts that had survived to that point, such was his determination to rid ignorance from his land.
The most distinctive letters in this script are the a and s. The a has several variants, but its construction is basically to of the letter c put directly next to each other, sometimes with a closed loop where the horns of the first c meet the second, sometimes with the top horn is disconnected, early on it still looks like the uncial version with a belly on the left of a short, slightly curved line slanting from left to right.
The closed form of the a could end up looking like a lowercase Greek alpha, depending on how much curve the scribe put into the letters. The s is the furthest from our current script, and oddly changed from a similar form as we have today.
These two letters are the easiest way to identify a manuscript as being from the Carolingian era, however each letter has its own small details that mark it as being Carolingian, particularly the t.
The construction of many Carolingian letters include the c and the t is no exception, being a c with a horizontal crossbar at the top, this is also a very easy letter to pick out.
Example of Caroline miniscule showing tall s and an alternate form of a. Caroloine miniscule finally makes it England in the 10th century where runic symbols were also kept, along with there being a strong Norman presence and eventually influence. The 11th century sees more changes and unsure execution of scripts in France and Germany, however a differentiation of ae and oe sounds while writing the e caudata, and a weak punctuation mark are added.
These changes, while useful for a more organic, natural representation of writing, still meant that the Carolingian miniscule itself was falling out of use, slowly being altered and adapted until it was no longer the original letter forms. During this time beginning of 10th c. Insular script from Ireland.
Without these reforms and practices, many of the ancient texts which make up the backbone of our historical knowledge would have been forever lost; for this reason Caroline miniscule is incredibly important to the entire world because without it, we may not have the texts that we do now.Carolingian manuscripts (produced in large numbers in a monastery at Tours, of which Alcuin becomes abbot in ) are among the most clear and legible documents in the history of writing.
Black-letter style: 11th - 15th century.
When writing in poetry, this usually meant starting off every line of poetry with a large Uncial or Half Uncial letter (note: this means every line of the poetry that you are copying, not every line of the script that you are writing out). Calligraphy - Latin-alphabet handwriting: To understand the development of modern Western calligraphy it is important to survey historical writing styles—some of which profoundly influenced subsequent work—as well as how the materials of writing have been used.
Most calligraphy is done with pen and ink on paper or parchment, although brushes and chisels are also used for making large. Handbook for William: A Carolingian Woman's Counsel for Her Son, trans.
by Carol Neel (Medieval Texts in Translation) [Dhuoda, Carol Neel] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
I send you this little book written down in my name, that you may read it for your education. Carolingian Minuscule A court school was established under the direction of Alcuin of York. During Charlemagne's patronage book production increased and language was standardized —pronunciation and spelling as well as writing conventions— capitals at the start of a sentence, spaces between words and punctuation.
Merovingian script or Gallo-Roman script was a medieval variant of the Latin script so called because it was developed in Gaul during the Merovingian dynasty. It was used in the 7th and 8th centuries before the Carolingian dynasty and the development of Carolingian minuscule.