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Duchy of Lithuania Lithuanian brooches from 9th—12th centuries The first people settled in the territory of Lithuania after the last glacial period in the 10th millennium BC: KundaNeman and Narva cultures.
They were traveling hunters and did not form stable settlements. In the 8th millennium BC, the climate became much warmer, and forests developed. The inhabitants of what is now Lithuania then traveled less and engaged in local hunting, gathering and fresh-water fishing.
Agriculture did not emerge until the 3rd millennium BC due to a harsh climate and terrain and a lack of suitable tools to cultivate the land.
Crafts and trade also started to form at this time. Over a millennium, the Indo-Europeanswho arrived in the 3rd — 2nd millennium BC, mixed with the local population and formed various Baltic tribes.
The Baltic tribes did not maintain close cultural or political contacts with the Roman Empirebut they did maintain trade contacts see Amber Road. Tacitusin his study Germaniadescribed the Aesti people, inhabitants of the south-eastern Baltic Sea shores who were probably Balts, around the year 97 AD.
The Western Balts differentiated and became known to outside chroniclers first. Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD knew of the Galindians and Yotvingiansand early medieval chroniclers mentioned Old PrussiansCuronians and Semigallians. It is believed to have differentiated from the Latvian languagethe most closely related existing language, around the 7th century.
Rulers' bodies were cremated up until the conversion to Christianity: At its peak, Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. Known from the 6—7th centuries, it was used as a war horse by the Lithuanians.
From the midth century, it was the Lithuanians who were invading Ruthenian territories. InPolotsk and Pskov were ravaged, and even the distant and powerful Novgorod Republic was repeatedly threatened by the excursions from the emerging Lithuanian war machine toward the end of the 12th century.
Such military and pecuniary activities fostered social differentiation and triggered a struggle for power in Lithuania. This initiated the formation of early statehood, from which the Grand Duchy of Lithuania developed.
Despite the devastating century-long struggle with the Orders, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania expanded rapidly, overtaking former Slavic principalities of Kievan Rus'. The Livonian Brothers were smashed during it and their further conquest of the Balts lands were stopped. Some thirty years' worth of conquests on the left bank of Daugava were lost.
Gediminas, obeying the will of gods, built the city, and gave it the name Vilnius — from the stream of the Vilnia River. The victory brought the city of Kiev and a large part of present-day Ukraine, including sparsely populated Podolia and Dykraunder the control of the expanding Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The ruling elite practised religious tolerance and Chancery Slavonic language was used as an auxiliary language to the Latin for official documents. Inthe Grand Duke Jogaila accepted Poland's offer to become its king. Jogaila embarked on gradual Christianization of Lithuania and established a personal union between Poland and Lithuania.
Lithuania was one of the last pagan areas of Europe to adopt Christianity. During his reign, Lithuania reached the peak of its territorial expansion, centralization of the state began, and the Lithuanian nobility became increasingly prominent in state politics.
In the great Battle of the Vorskla River inthe combined forces of Tokhtamysh and Vytautas were defeated by the Mongols. Thanks to close cooperation, the armies of Lithuania and Poland achieved a great victory over the Teutonic Knights in at the Battle of Grunwaldone of the largest battles of medieval Europe.
Another crown was sent, but Vytautas died in the Trakai Island Castle several days before it reached Lithuania.
He was buried in the Cathedral of Vilnius. But, at the end of the 15th century, Lithuania was forced to seek a closer alliance with Poland when the growing power of the Grand Duchy of Moscow threatened Lithuania's Russian principalities and sparked the Muscovite—Lithuanian Wars and the Livonian War.
According to Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii by Sigismund von Herbersteinthe primary source for information on the battle, the much smaller army of Poland—Lithuania under 30, men defeated a force of 80, Muscovite soldiers, capturing their camp and commander.
Thousands of Muscovites were captured as prisoners and used as laborers in the Lithuanian manorswhile Konstanty Ostrogski delivered the captured Muscovite flags to the Cathedral of Vilnius.A glance at the medias role and influence in public information Posted by on Nov 8, in Copywriting | 0 comments Home» Copywriting» A glance at the medias role and influence in public i.
Canadian government Executive is the source for networking, innovation and thought leadership, serving senior public sector executives in federal, provincial and municipal departments across Canada. influence political attitudes, aids in the developement of public opinion, intermediary between ppl and govt, questions motives and purpose of govt, play important role in public agenda, less clear if they change the public opinion (exception when PO is volatile) but then ppl tend to watch channels that follow their political beliefs.
A Glance at the Media's Role and Influence in Public Information PAGES 4. WORDS 2, View Full Essay. More essays like this: medias role in public information, miami herald, david lawerence.
Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. What is the media’s role in relaying information to the public? How have hour cable news networks changed the way that people receive information? How Does Public Opinion Influence Government Policy?
Democratic devices such as ballot initiatives might resolve the inconsistencies between public opinion and public policy, though. 🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes.